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War Death

range Date Combatants Location Notes

Italian Wars 300,000–400,000 1494–1559 Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and some Italian States vs. France, Ottoman Empire, and some Italian states Southern Europe [23] – Also known as the Great Wars of Italy

Spanish conquest of Yucatán 1,460,000+ 1519–1595 Spanish Colonial Empire vs. Mayan States North America [23] – Part of the European colonisation of the Americas, includes deaths due to European disease

Campaigns of Suleiman the Magnificent 200,000+ 1521–1566 Ottoman Empire vs. several Balkan, African, and Arabian States Eastern Europe / Middle East / North Africa [24]

German Peasants’ War 100,000+ 1524–1525 German Peasants vs. Swabian League Germany [25] – Also known as the Great Peasants War

French Wars of Religion 2,000,000–4,000,000 1562–1598 Protestants vs. France vs. Catholics France [26] – Also known as the Huguenot Wars

Eighty Years’ War 600,000–700,000 1568–1648 Dutch Republic, England, Scotland, and France vs. Spanish Empire Worldwide [23] – Also known as the Dutch War of Independence

Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) 138,285+ 1585–1604 Spanish Empire and allies vs. Kingdom of England and allies Europe / Americas English




Japanese invasions of Korea 1,000,000+ 1592–1598 Kingdom of Great Joseon and Ming China vs. Japan Korea [28]

Wars of the Three Kingdoms 876,000+ 1639–1651 Royalists vs. Covenanters vs.Union of the Irish vs. Scottish Protestants vs. Parliamentarians British Isles [32][33][34] – Also known as the British Civil Wars

Franco-Dutch War 220,000+ 1672–1678 France and allies vs. Dutch Republic and allies Western Europe [24] – Also known as the Dutch War

Great Turkish War 380,000+ 1683–1699 Ottoman Empire vs. European Holy League Eastern Europe [24] – Also known as the War of the Holy League

Great Northern War 350,000+ 1700–1721 Russia and allies vs. Swedish Empire Eastern Europe Sweden, the Swedish Baltic provinces, and Finland, together, with a population of only 2.5 million, lost some 350,000 dead during the war from all causes.[38]

War of the Spanish Succession 400,000–1,250,000 1701–1714 Grand Alliance vs. Bourbon Alliance Europe / Americas [24]

Seven Years’ War 868,000–1,400,000 1756–1763 Great Britain and allies vs. France and Allies Worldwide [41][42]

Sino-Burmese War (1765–69) 70,000+ 1765–1769 Burma vs. Qing China Southeast Asia – Also known as the Qing invasions of Burma

American Revolutionary War 37,324+ 1775–1783 United States and allies vs. British Empire and German Mercenaries Worldwide 37,324 battle dead, all sides, all theaters.[24][43][44][45][46] – Also known as the American War of Independence

French campaign in Egypt and Syria 65,000+ 1798–1801 France vs. Ottoman Empire and Great Britain Middle East / North Africa [24]

Saint-Domingue expedition 135,000+ 1802–1803 France vs. Haiti and UK Haiti [31]

Napoleonic Wars 3,500,000–7,000,000 1803–1815 Coalition powers vs. French empire and allies Worldwide See: Napoleonic Wars casualties

Spanish American Wars of Independence 600,000+ 1808–1833 Spain and Portugal vs. American Independentists Americas [47]

Mfecane 1,500,000–2,000,000 1815–1840 Ethnic communities in south Africa Southern Africa [48]

Carlist Wars 200,000+ 1820–1876 Carlist Insurgents vs. Spain Spain [47]

Greek War of Independence 170,000+ 1821–1831 Greek Revolutionaries vs. Ottoman Empire Greece The war started between Greek Revolutionaries and the Ottoman Empire. The Greeks were later assisted by Russia, Great Britain, and France. The war led to the formation of modern Greece.

French conquest of Algeria 480,000–1,000,000 1830–1903 France vs. Algerian resistance Algeria The war started between France and the Deylik of Algiers, which was an Ottoman vassal, but after the early capitulation of the Deylik, resistance was led by different groups.

Taiping Rebellion 20,000,000–30,000,000, possibly many more. 1850–1864 Qing China vs. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom China [49][50][51] – Also known as the Taiping Civil War

Crimean War 356,000–410,000 1853–1856 Ottoman Empire and allies vs. Russia Crimean Peninsula One of the first wider uses of rifles

Panthay Rebellion 890,000–1,000,000 1856–1873 Qing China vs. Hui China – Also known as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion

Indian Rebellion of 1857 800,000–1,000,000 1857–1858 Sepoy Mutineers vs. British East India Company India [52] – Also known as the Sepoy Mutiny or the Indian First War of Independence

Dungan Revolt 8,000,000–20,000,000 1862–1877 Qing China vs. Hui vs. Kashgaria China – Also known as the Tongzhi Hui Revolt

French intervention in Mexico 49,287+ 1862–1867 Mexican Republicans vs. France and Mexican Empire Mexico [31]

Paraguayan War 300,000–1,200,000 1864–1870 Triple alliance vs. Paraguay South America [56] – Also known as the War of the Triple Alliance

Ten Years’ War 241,000+ 1868–1878 Spain vs. Cuba Cuba [31] – Also known as the Great War

Conquest of the Desert 30,000–35,000 1870s–1884 Argentina vs. Mapuche people Patagonia

Aceh War 97,000–107,000 1873–1914 Kingdom of the Netherlands vs. Aceh Sultanate Indonesia [57] – Also known as the Infidel War

First Sino–Japanese War 48,311+ 1894–1895 Qing China vs. Japan East Asia A large factor in the weakening of Qing China.

Cuban War of Independence 362,000+ 1895–1898 USA and Cuba vs. Spain Cuba [31]

Thousand Days’ War 120,000+ 1899–1902 Colombian Conservatives vs. Colombian Liberals Colombia [58]

South African War (Second Boer War) 73,000–90,000 1899-1902 United Kingdom and allies vs. South African Republic and Orange Free State South Africa [59]

Philippine–American War 234,000+ 1899–1912 Philippines vs. USA Philippines [60] – Also known as the Philippine War

Mexican Revolution 500,000–2,000,000 1910–1920 Revolutionary Forces vs. Anti-Revolutionary Forces Mexico [61]

Balkan Wars 140,000+ 1912–1913 see Balkan wars Balkan Peninsula Th war restricted Ottoman control in Europe to territories around Istanbul

World War I 16,000,000–40,000,000+ (the higher estimate also includes the first victims of the related Spanish flu epidemic who died by the end of 1918. Neither includes the subsequent…

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