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Epineural optogenetic activation of nociceptors initiates and amplifies inflammation

An optogenetic study shows that activation of pain-triggering sensory neurons induces an immune response.

a, Fully assembled PCB including additional ‘wings’ for access to various signals during device firmware development and for the initial flashing of the program code onto the device. After initial flashing and thorough testing, the ‘wings’ are cut and antenna and battery are attached and soldered. b, The final device measures 8.0 x 11.0 x 5.3 mm3 and weighs 0.85 g – 1.1g after encapsulation in silicone. c, The charging station is used for turning on/off the units – a design choice by which the wireless units can be fully encapsulated and be without any mechanical components (except the connector). Multiple stations can be interconnected to each other such that a…

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